Tribal groups in India speak their own languages and not the mainstream language of the state they live in, which is a major hurdle in the education of their children. MLE and other innovative practices are being attempted in Odisha by NGOs like Sikshasandhan.
There are different approaches towards the human development of the tribal or the indigenous people. Broadly, one can see two extreme positions in this regard. The first is one of modernizing these communities to integrate them with the mainstream population.
According to the 2013 ASER report, Rayagada (Odisha), a district with a high ratio of tribal population, was ranked a low 25th out of 30 districts in terms of the percentage of children in class I and II who could read letters, words or more. The district also has the highest percentage of out-of-school children in the 6-14 age group in Odisha.
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